Los contextos socio-culturales y el desarrollo de competencias: ejes articuladores de la investigación sobre alfabetización inicial

Valeria Quiroz Quiroz

Resumen


El propósito del presente artículo es revisar y clasificar la investigación realizada durante la última década sobre la alfabetización inicial,  determinando los ejes articuladores de los estudios en este campo. La selección de la literatura respondió a criterios relacionados a la enseñanza de la lectura en los niveles iniciales. Para la comprensión de este amplio y complejo campo de estudio, la revisión se organizó en  cuatro instancias. La primera, se relaciona con la aproximación global o parcial sobre el objeto de estudio. En un segundo momento, se distinguieron los ámbitos de los estudios relacionados a  los  espacios donde se realizan las prácticas. Luego, se clasificaron de acuerdo a las perspectivas epistemológicas y metodológicas utilizadas, revelando la existencia de diversos paradigmas de investigación. Finalmente, se detectaron las controversias y posiciones en los conceptos de alfabetización subyacentes en los estudios seleccionados, detectando dos ejes articuladores de la investigación en alfabetización, ya sea  como un proceso de desarrollo de competencias psicolingüísticas  o como un  proceso en contextos históricos, sociales y culturales.


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